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Scrum and Agile way of working

In this article I will try to explain importance of Agile project management in modern software development. As the software systems get more complex and the development process becomes more frustrating for developers software development teams must find new ways to build projects.

Main Definition of Agile Project Management: ( from Agile Manifesto )

We are uncovering better ways of developing
software by doing it and helping others do it.
Through this work we have come to value:

Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Working software over comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan

That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.

Principles behind the Agile Manifesto

We follow these principles:

  • Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
  • Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.
  • Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
  • Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.
  • Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.
  • The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
  • Working software is the primary measure of progress.
  • Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
  • Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
  • Simplicity–the art of maximizing the amount of work not done–is essential.
  • The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
  • At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.

What is Scrum in Relation to Agile Project Management?

Agile is a set of values and principles that describe a group’s day-to-day interactions and activities. Agile itself is not prescriptive or specific.

The Scrum methodology follows the values and principles of agile, but includes further definitions and specifications, especially regarding certain software development practices.

Agile Scrum Methodology

Scrum is an agile project management methodology or framework used primarily for software development projects with the goal of delivering new software capability every 2-4 weeks. It is one of the approaches that influenced the Agile Manifesto, which articulates a set of values and principles to guide decisions on how to develop higher-quality software faster. The Scrum methodology is defined by team roles, events (ceremonies), artifacts, and rules.

The Scrum Team

Scrum teams are typically composed of 7 +/- 2 members and have no team leader to delegate tasks or decide how a problem is solved. The team as a unit decides how to address issues and solve problems. Each member of the Scrum team is an integral part of the solution and is expected to carry a product from inception to completion. There are three key roles in a Scrum team:

The Product Owner

The Product Owner is the project’s key stakeholder – usually an internal or external customer, or a spokesperson for the customer. There is only one Product Owner who conveys the overall mission and vision of the product which the team is building. The Product Owner is ultimately accountable for managing the product backlog and accepting completed increments of work.

The ScrumMaster

The ScrumMaster is the servant leader to the Product Owner, Development Team and Organization. With no hierarchial authority over the team but rather more of a facilitator, the ScrumMaster ensures that the team adheres to Scrum theory, practices, and rules. The ScrumMaster protects the team by doing anything possible to help the team perform at the highest level. This may include removing impediments, facilitating meetings, and helping the Product Owner groom the backlog.

The Development Team

The Development Team is a self-organizing, cross-functional group armed with all of the skills to deliver shippable increments at the completion of each sprint. Scrum broadens the definition of the term “developer” beyond programmers to include anyone who participates in the creation of the delivered increment. There are no titles in the Development Team and no one, including the ScrumMaster, tells the Development Team how to turn product backlog items into potentially shippable increments

Scrum Events (Ceremonies)

The Sprint

A sprint is a time-boxed period during which specific work is completed and made ready for review. Sprints are usually 2-4 weeks long but can be as short as one week.

Sprint Planning Sprint

Planning team meetings are time-boxed events that determine which product backlog items will be delivered and how the work will be achieved.

The Daily Stand-up

The Daily Stand-up is a short communication meeting (no more than 15 minutes) in which each team member quickly and transparently covers progress since the last stand-up, planned work before the next meeting, and any impediments that may be blocking his or her progress.

The Sprint Review

The Sprint Review is the “show-and-tell” or demonstration event for the team to present the work completed during the sprint. The Product Owner checks the work against pre-defined acceptance criteria and either accepts or rejects the work. The stakeholders or clients give feedback to ensure that the delivered increment met the business need.

The Retrospective

The Retrospective, or Retro, is the final team meeting in the Sprint to determine what went well, what didn’t go well, and how the team can improve in the next Sprint. Attended by the team and the ScrumMaster, the Retrospective is an important opportunity for the team to focus on its overall performance and identify strategies for continuous improvement on its processes.

Scrum Artifacts

Product Backlog

The product backlog is the single most important document that outlines every requirement for a system, project or product. The product backlog can be thought of as a to-do list consisting of work items, each of which produces a deliverable with business value. Backlog items are ordered in terms of business value by the Product Owner.

Sprint Backlog

A sprint backlog is the specific list of items taken from the product backlog which are to be completed in a sprint.

Increment

An Increment is the sum of all product backlog items that have been completed since the last software release. While it is up to the Product Owner to decide on when an increment is released, it is the team’s responsibility to make sure everything that is included in an increment is ready to be released. This is also referred to as the Potentially Shippable Increment (PSI).

Scrum Rules

The rules of agile Scrum should be completely up to the team and governed by what works best for their processes. The best agile coaches will tell teams to start with the basic scrum events listed above and then inspect and adapt based on your team’s unique needs so there is continuous improvement in the way teams work together.

SCRUM GUIDE DOWNLOAD ( PDF BROCHURE )

English: https://scrumguides.org/docs/scrumguide/v2017/2017-Scrum-Guide-US.pdf

Croatian: https://scrumguides.org/docs/scrumguide/v2017/2017-Scrum-Guide-Croatian.pdf

REFERENCES:

https://scrumguides.org/

https://www.jile.io/agile-basics/start-small-scale-agile

https://resources.collab.net/agile-101/what-is-scrum

http://agilemanifesto.org/

 

Copyright by Kristijan Klepač 2018